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小学英语语法小结.doc

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1、 小学英语语法小结 一、 名词:有可数名词和不可数名词。 1、 可数名词有单数和、复数之分。 名词复数形式的构成规则: 【1】 一般在名词词尾“s ” 如:teacher—teachers egg—eggs 【2】 以s,x,sh,ch结尾的名词加’“es” 如:class—classes box—boxes bus—buses watch—watches 【3】 以辅音字母+y的名词变y为i加es 如:story—stories library—libra。

2、ries dictionary—dictionaries hobby—hobbies 【4】 以f,fe结尾的名词,变f,fe为v加es 如:life—lives leaf—leaves half—halves knife—knives wolf—wolves wife—wives 【5】 以o结尾的名词英雄芒果土豆西红柿”加es 如:hero—heroes mango—mangoes potato—potatoes tomato--tomatoes 【6】 其余加s 如:zoo—zoos kilo—kilos radio—radios 。

3、 photo—photos piano—pianos 【7】 不规则名词单复数形式 如:child—children man—men woman--women foot—feet tooth—teeth 【8】 有的可数名词单、复数形式相同 如:Japanese、Chinese、sleep. 如:l have one sleep.He has two sleep. 2、 不可数名词没有复数形式 不可数名词有: 【1】milk、water、juice、tea、ice; 【2】food、rice。

4、、meat、fish、chicken、bread、cheese; 【3】paper、newspaper、hair、time、money、homework、housework; 不可数名词的的数量常表示如下 Two bottles of milk a cup of juice half a kilo of cheese a big of rice three kilos of meat some water 二、 人称代词 人称代词包括主格和宾格。主格在句中作主语,宾格用于动词或介词后作宾。

5、语。 主格 I we you he she it they 宾格 me us you him her it them 我 你们 你、你们 他 她 它 他、她、它们 We are going to have a picnic. Let us go. I miss everyone in China . Who can help me? What is he doing? He is trying to get on the bus. Look at him. She can’t heat. 。

6、 This dog helps her. Tell me more about the Great Wall. 三、 物主代词 物主代词包括形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词。 形容词性物主代词后需跟名词,名词性物主代词后不用跟。 名词性物主代词含义=形容词性物主代词+名词的含义。 形容词性物主代词 my our your his her its their 名词性物主代词 mine ours yours his hers its theirs 我的 我们的 你的、你们的 他的 她的 它的 他、她、它们的 This is。

7、 my book.=This book is mine. This is hie bag=This bag is his. Your watch is old,but hers is new. Thanksgiving is my favourite festival. We say“Think you”for our food,family and friends. 四、疑问词 who 谁 what 什么 when 什么时候 where 哪里 what time 几点 why 为什么 how 怎么 whose 谁的 how m。

8、uch 多少 how many多少 how old 多大 what colour 什么颜色 how long 多长 what day 那天 1、 对人物提问用who Who gave it to you? Simon’s family gave it to me. Who can help me? I can help you. 2、 对事物或做某事提问用what What do you want? I want a hot dog. What are you doing? I am reading a book. What are you going。

9、 to study? I’m going to study English. What are you going to do? We’re going to walk around the lake. What’s it about? It’s about animals. 3、对时间提问用when When are you going to eat? We’re going to eat at ha;f past twelve. When was he born? He was born 。

10、in 1809. 4、对点钟提问用what time What time is it? It’s twelve. What time do you get up? I get up at six o’clock. 5、 对地点提问用where Where was he born? He was born in France. Where are you? I am on the train. Where’s your mum? She’s at the supermarket. 6、 对原因提问用why Why are you wearing a rain。

11、coat? Because it’s going to rain. 7、 对身体状态或方式用how How are you? I’m fine. How are you going to go to school? I’m going to go to school by bus. 8、 对价钱等不可数名词的数量用how much How much is it? It’s thirteen dollars and twenty-five cents. How much milk do you want? I want two bottles of milk. 9、 对。

12、可数名词的数量提问用how many How many books are they on the desk? There are three books on the desk. 10、 对年龄提问用how old How old are you? I’m twelve. 11、 对“某人的”提问用whose Whose cap is this? It’s Amy’s cap. Whose pen is that? It’s his pen. 12、 对颜色提问用what colour What colour is it? It’s black. 13、 对。

13、颜色提问用what day What day is it today? It’s Monday. 14、 对长度提问用how long How long is it? It’s about six thousand seven hundred kilometers. 特殊疑问句语序:疑问词+一般疑问句语序? 例:How do you go to school? 疑问词【做主语】+谓词动词+……? 例:We gave it to you? 五、时态 1.一般过去时 表示过去某个时间发生时的动作或存在的状态。经常与表示过去的时间连用。

14、。如yesterday【昨天】,last week 【上周】,last month【上个月】,last year【去年】,two moths ago【两个月前】等。 构成:【1】肯定句:主语+动词过去式+…… He made a video. 否定句:主语+didn’t+动词原形+…… He didn’t make a video. 一般疑问句:Did +主语+动词原形+…… Did he make a video? 【2】be动词用was,were.否定句在was,were后加not。

15、。 一般疑问句把was,were提前道句首。 She was born in America. She was not born in America. Was she born in America? 2、现在进行时 表示现在进行的动作 构成:主语+am/is/are+现在分词+…… The birds are singing in the trees. 否定句在am/is/are后加not. The birds are not singing in the trees. 一般疑问句把am/is/are提前到句首。

16、 Are the birds singing in the trees? 3 、一般将来时 表示将来某个时间要发生的动词或存在的状态。经常与表示将来的时间连用。如tomorrow(明天),next week(下周),next year(明年)等。 构成:(1)主语+will+动词原形+…… He will pick up the apples. 否定句在will后加not。 He will not pick up the apples。 一般疑问句把will提前到句首。 Wil。

17、l he pick up the apples? (2)主语+be going to+动词原形+…… We are going to study French。 否定句在am,is,are后加not。 We are not going to study French。。 一般疑问句把am,is,are提前到句首。 Are you going to study French? 4、一般现在时 。

18、 表示经常性,习惯性的动作或存在的状态。 构成:【1】主语+am/is/are+…… 否定句在am/is/are后加not.一般疑问句把am/is/are提前道句首。 Helen Keller is a model for blind people and for you and me. 【2】肯定句:主语+动词原形…… The ducks like it. 否定句:主语+don’t+动词原形+…… The ducks don’t like it. 一般疑问句:Do+主语+动词原形+……。

19、? Do the ducks like it? 【3】肯定句:主语【三单】+动词第三人称形式+…… He likes noodles. 否定句:主语+doesn’t+动词原形+…… He doesn’t like noodles. 一般疑问句:Does+主语+动词原形+…… Does he like noodles? 六、动词过去式形式 规则动词的过去式构成 1、 一般在动词词尾加ed 如:work--worked play--played watch--watched 2、 以e结尾动词在词尾加d 如:live--lived 3、 以辅音字母+y结尾的动词,。

20、把y变i再加ed 如:study--studies copy--copies cry--cries carry--carries 4、 有些动词双写最后一个字母再加ed 如:stop--stopped drop--dropped 不规则动词的过去式规律性不强,需多加记忆。 动词原形 动词过去式 动词原形 动词过去式 go went come came become became bring brought say said put put tea。

21、ch taught can could read read give gave am/is was are were do did fly flew have had make made run ran see saw ride rode win won get got tell told eat 。

22、 ate send sent take took buy bought sit sat meet met write wrote draw drew swim swam fall fell rink drank ring rang 7、 动词ing形式也是现在分词形式 现在分词的构成规则 1、 一般在动词词尾直接加“ing” sleep--sleeping look--looking w。

23、ear--wearing eat--eating send--sending sing--singing go--going jump--jumping 2、 以不发音的e结尾的动词要去掉e再加上“ing” write--writing come--coming ride--riding use--using have--having make--making take--taking shine--shining 3、 有些动词双写最后一个字母再加“ing” get--getting put--putting sit--sitting run--r。

24、unning Swim--swimming skip--skipping shop--shopping 8、 动词第三人称单数形式 动词第三人称单数的构成规则 1、 大多数动词在词尾加“s” stop--stops make--makes read--reads play--plays 2、 以辅音字母加“y”结尾的,先将“y”变为“i”加“es” fly--flies carry--carries study-studies worry--worries 3、 以“s,x,ch,sh,o”结尾,在词尾加es” teach--teaches watc。

25、h--watches do--does go--goes 9、 情态动词can过去式could后加动词原形 I can write English. I can carry this bag. I can help you. We can always be friends. Later she could read and write. 否定句在can,could后加not can not=can’t could not=couldn’t We can’t go now. I can’t write Chinese. She couldn’t see and s。

26、he couldn’t hear. I can’t carry everything. His friends can’t hear him. 一般疑问句把can,could提前到句首 Can you swim? Yes,I can./No,I can’t. Can you speak English? Can I write to your friends? Can you be my Chinese pen pal? Yes,of course. 十、反义词 big--small long--short new--old tall--short yo。

27、ung--old heavy--light easy--hard/difficult up--down early--late fat--thin white--black cry--laugh different--same inside--outside hot--cold happy--sad good--bad clean--dirty bring--take this--that these--those always--never woman--man 十一、同音词 for--four son--s。

28、un hour--our too--two right--write eye--I aren’t--aunt sent--cent Where--wear their--there by--buy see--sea 12、 近义词 good--well study--learn 十三、缩写形式与完整形式 I am=I’m he is=he’s she is=she’s it is=it’s that is=that’s what is=what’s let us=let’s we are=we’re。

29、 they are=they’re you are=you’re can not=can’t could not=couldn’t should not=shouldn’t will not=won’t I’ll=I will we’ll=we will do not=don’t does not=doesn’t did not=didn’t It has got=it’s got I have got=I’ve got have not=haven’t has not=hasn’t are not-aren’t is not=isn’t 十四、小学英语分类单词和词组 天气: rain 下雨 snow 下雪 rainy 有雨的 snowy 有雪的 hot 炎热的 cold 寒冷的 warm 温暖的 cool 凉爽的 windy 有风的 sunny 晴朗的 食物: hamburger 汉堡 hot dog 热狗 sandwich 三明治 chicken 鸡肉 chip 薯条 fish 鱼肉 meat 肉 noodles 面条 rice 米饭 soup 汤 cake 蛋糕 bread 面包 cheese 奶酪 。

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